What is blood pressure?

 Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the flowing blood on the elastic wall of arteries.

What is blood pressure

Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries as the heart pumps blood. Each time your heart beats, it pumps blood into the arteries.

low and high blood pressure


How is blood pressure measured

Blood pressure is measure in two stage. The gauge uses a unit of measurement called millimeters of mercury ( mmHg ) to measure the pressure in your blood vessels.

1- Systolic pressure (pumping pressure) :- It is the higher limit of blood pressure that show the state of heart (systole) contraction. For man this limit is 120 mm Hg (normal).

2- Diastolic pressure (Resting pressure):- It is the lower limit of B.P. that shows the state of heart relaxation (expansion=Diastole). Foe man this limit is 80 mmHg (normal).

Which instrument measuring the blood pressure

The instrument by which we can measure B.P. is called Sphygmomanometer.

What is Low Blood Pressure ( Hypotension)

Low blood pressure, is when your blood pressure is much lower than expected. Low blood pressure is generally considered a blood pressure reading lower than (less than 90/60mmHg). 90 mmHg for the top number (Systolic) and 60 mmHg for the bottom number (diastolic).

Cause of Low Blood Pressure

Medical condition that can cause low blood pressure include:

  • Pregnancy
  • Heart and heart valve conditions
  • Dehydration
  • Blood loss
  • Hormone-related diseases (endocrine disorder)
  • Several infection (septicemia)
  • Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
  • Lack of nutrients in the diet

Symptoms of Low Blood Pressure

Low blood pressure symptoms may include:

  • Fatigue
  • Lack of concentration
  • Depression
  • Rapid and low breathing
  • Pale skin
  • Unsteadiness
  • Blurry vision

What is High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is the common condition in which the long term force of the blood against your artery wall is high enough that it may eventually cause health problem, such as heart disease. Usually high blood pressure is consider to be 140/90 mmHg. 140 mmHg for the top number (Systolic) and 90 mmHg for the bottom number (diastolic).

Cause of High Blood Pressure

Medical condition that can cause high blood pressure include:

  • Are overweight.
  • Eat too much salt and do not eat enough fruit and vegetable.
  • Do not do enough exercise.
  • Smoke.
  • Are over 65.
  • Do not get much sleep or have disturbed sleep.
  • Have a relative with high blood pressure.
  • Live a deprived area.

Symptoms of High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure may include:

  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea and / or vomiting
  • Nosebleeds
  • Lightheadedness / Fainting
  • Blurry or double vision

Blood Pressure Range

Normal- blood pressure of 120/80.

Low blood pressure- Blood pressure of 90/60.

Pre-hypertension- Blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/89.

High blood pressure- Blood pressure of 140/90 or above (consistently).


The pulse is felt in the radial artery present in the wrist of a man. It is also felt in the artery of neck region. The graph of pulse of an artery is marked by an instrument tat is called Sphygmograph.

Pulse pressure

Pulse pressure is the pressure difference which generates pulse. This is systolic minus diastolic B.P.

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