RNA | Definition, Structure, Types, & Functions | trscareer

What is RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is an important biological macromolecule that help in synthesis of protein in our body. And also various biological roles in Coding, Decoding, Regulation, and Expression of genes. 

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid present in all living cells that has structural similarities to DNA. Unlike DNA, however, RNA is most often single-stranded. An RNA molecule has a backbone made of alternating phosphate groups and the sugar ribose, rather than the deoxyribose found in DNA. 

RNA consists of ribose nucleotides (Nitrogenous bases appended to a ribose sugar) attached by phosphodiester bonds, forming stands of varying lengths. The nitrogenous bases in RNA are: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U), which replaces thymine in DNA.

RNA Definition Structure Types Functions trscareer

Full form of RNA

The full form of RNA is Ribonucleic acid. It is polymeric molecule that plays a significant role in activities like coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

Structure of RNA

RNA is a single stranded and it is made up of ribonucleotide that are linked by phosphodiester bonds. The RNA has all the components same to that of the DNA with only two main differences. RNA has the same nitrogen bases called the adenine(A), guanine(G), Cytosine(C), and uracil(U), which replaces thymine in DNA.

Types of RNA

In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, there are mainly three types o RNA.

  • Messenger RNA (m RNA)
  • Transfer RNA (t RNA) 
  • Ribosomal RNA (r RNA)

Messenger RNA (m RNA)

Type of RNA which carries the genetic information from DNA to ribosome for protein synthesis. Amino acids are arranged according to genetic information in mRNA. Based on the function these types of RNA is called the messenger RNA. These carry the information from the DNA in the nucleus of the cell to cytoplasm where the protein are made. It present 3-4% in cell.

Transfer RNA (t RNA)

 Types of RNA which transfers the specific amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosome for protein synthesis. It is located at the endpoints of each amino acid. Transfer RNA serve as a link (or adaptor) between the messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule and the growing chain of amino acid that make up a protein. It present 10-15% in cell.

Ribosomal RNA (r RNA)

Types of RNA in ribosomal ribonucleic acid is a type of non-coding RNA which is the primary component of ribosome, essential to the cell. The ribosomal RNAA play a fundamental role in the synthesis and translation of mRNA into proteins. It present 80-85% in cell.

Function of RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) which consist many composed of nucleic acids, are involve in a variety cell function and is found in all living organism include bacteria, viruses, plants, and animals.

Function of RNA are:

  • The primary function of RNA is to create proteins via translation.
  • It help in the synthesis of proteins in our body.
  • It carries genetic information from DNA to ribosome for synthesising polypeptide chain.
  • Transfer RNA carries amino acids to messenger RNA for translation.
  • r RNA is a vital component of ribosome.    

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