Liver-Definition, Anatomy structure, Function, and Liver diseases


The liver is a largest organ in the human body. It is located in the upper right portion of abdomen that performs many important body functions, including blood filtering. It is also considered a gland because it makes chemicals the body need. It is the only organ that has the ability to regenerate efficiently.

Liver Definition Anatomy structure Function  and Liver diseases

Position: Lies in upper right pat of abdominal cavity.

Shape, Size, color

Shape: It is wedge shaped ( one thick end and tapering to a thin edge)

Color: Reddish brown

Weight:  -In males: 1.4 to 1.8 kg

                -In females: 1.2 to 1.4 kg          

                -In new born: 150g

Liver Anatomy
Structure of Liver
The liver is a triangular, bilobed structure consists of two lobes called right and left lobes. The right lobe is larger and left lobe is smaller. The falciform ligament separated the two lobes.
A layer of fibrous tissue called Glisson’s capsule covers the liver. This capsule is covered by peritoneum. This protect the liver from physical damage.

There are two distinct sources that supply blood to the liver, including the following:
  • Hepatic Artery That carries oxygenated blood from the heart.
  • Hepatic Portal Vein that carries nutrient-rich blood from the digestive system.
The liver consist of  2 main lobes. Both are made up of 8 segments that consist of 1,000 lobules (small lobes). These lobules are connected to small duct (tubes) that connect with larger ducts to form the common hepatic duct.

Functions of Liver
The various functions of the liver are carried out by liver cells or  hepatocytes.  liver is an essential organ of the body that perform over 500 vital function. These including removing waste products and foreign substances from the bloodstream, regulating blood sugar levels, and creating essential nutrients. Here are some of its most important functions:

Bile production: Production of bile, which helps in the digestion and absorption of fat in the small intestine.

Filters Blood: All the body blood passes through the liver, which removes toxins, byproducts, and other harmful substance.

Fat metabolizing :  Bile breaks down fats and makes them easier to digest.

Proteins metabolizing: Bile helps in the digestion of proteins.

Carbohydrates metabolizing: Carbohydrates are stored in liver, where they are broken down into glucose and siphoned into bloodstream to maintain normal glucose levels. They are stored as glycogen and released whenever a quick burst of energy is needed.
Regulates Blood clotting: Blood clotting coagulants are created using vitamin K, which can only be absorbed with the help of bile, a fluid, a fluid the liver produces.

Immunological function: Liver contains Kupffer cells involved in immune activity. These destroy any disease-causing agents.

Vitamin and mineral: The liver stores vitamins A, D, E, K and B12. It keeps significant amounts of these vitamins stored. In some cases, several years, worth of vitamins is held as a backup. The liver stores iron from hemoglobin in the form of ferritin, ready to make new red blood cells. The liver also stores and releases copper.

Absorbing and metabolizing bilirubin: Bilirubin is formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin. The iron released from hemoglobin is stored in the liver of bone marrow and used to make the next generation of blood cell.

Liver Disease
Liver disease (hepatic disease) is any disease that negatively affects the normal, healthy performance of the liver. There are many kinds of liver disease and conditions. Some, like hepatitis, are caused by viruses. Other of liver damage, such as alcohol use disorder.

Alcoholic liver disease: Alcoholic liver disease is damage to he liver and its function due to alcohol abuse. 
Hepatitis: An inflammation of liver caused by viruses infection such as hepatitis- hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C . The most cases, it leads to liver failure.
Liver cancer: Cancer that begins cell of the liver. Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Alcohol and hepatitis are the major cause of liver cancer.
Fascioliasis: Fascioliasis is an infectious disease caused by Fasciola  parasites, which are flat worm referred to as liver flukes.
Cirrhosis: Cirrhosis is a condition in which your liver is scarred and permanently damaged.  The scar cells replace liver cell in a process know as fibrosis. 



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