Carbohydrate types function example food simple complex

What is Carbohydrate

Carbohydrate are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or substances that produce such compounds on hydrolysis. The term polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketone means they have more than one hydroxy group(-OH) and one carbonyl group(CO).    

 The word carbohydrate means ‘hydrate of carbon’. It is a group of organic compound containing carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen ratio of 2:1(as in water) and thus with the empirical formula Cm( H2O)n. Carbohydrate is one of the most abundant organic molecules found in nature. They serves as primary source of energy and also supply carbon requirements. Carbohydrate are mainly found in plant food. They 

also occur in daily products in the form of milk sugar called lactose. Food high carbohydrates include bread, pasta , beans, potatoes, rice, and cereals. Carbohydrate are water soluble compounds. All carbohydrate is not sugar but all sugar is carbohydrate- ex Glycogen, Insulin. 
The food containing carbohydrate are converted into glucose or blood sugar during the process of digestion by the digestive system. Our body utilizes this sugar s a source of energy for the cell, organs and tissues. Glucose can be used immediately or stored in the liver muscles for latter use.  

Classification of Carbohydrate
Generally, carbohydrate are classified into simple and complex which is mainly based on there chemical structure and degree of polymerization.

Simple carbohydrates:-  Simple sugar have one or two sugar molecules. Simple carbohydrate are broken down quickly by the body to be used as energy. Simple carbohydrate are found naturally in food such as milk, fruits, and milk products. They are also found in processed and refined sugar such as candy, table sugar, syrups, and soft drinks. 
  • Monosaccharides
  • Disaccharides
  • Oligosaccharides


Mono= single, saccharide=sugar. Monosaccharides also called simple sugars, are the simplest forms of sugar and the most basic units (monomer) from which all carbohydrate are built. It is that type of carbohydrate which can not be further hydrolyzed (broken down) into simple form. They are represented by the general formula (CH2O)n or (CnH2nOn). Monosaccharide are colorless, crystalline, substance, sweet in test. They are soluble in water. The monosaccharide plays a pivotal role in metabolism, where the chemical energy is extracted through glycolysis and citric acid cycle to provide energy to living organism. 
Example of Monosaccharide:- Example of monosaccharide include Glucose, Fructose, Galactose.
Properties of Monosaccharide:- Monosaccharide have simple, linear, unbranched structure. They are usually colorless, water-soluble, and crystalline solids. They are sweet in test, they are reducing sugar . They do not undergo hydrolysis. 

A disaccharide , also called a double sugar, any substance that is composed of two molecules of simple sugars, or monosaccharide are joined by glycosidic linkage. Disaccharides are crystalline water-soluble components. The most common types of disaccharide are- sucrose, lactose, and maltose. They have 12 carbon atoms, and their chemical formula is C12H22O11. Disaccharides act as an energy source for the body, just like any other carbohydrate. when we eat foods that contain disaccharides, our bodies break them down into simple sugar (monosaccharides) for absorption in the small intestine.
Example of Disaccharide:- Example of disaccharide include Sucrose, Lactose, and Maltose.
Properties of Disaccharide:- They have sweet in test. They are polar component. They are readily soluble in water due to hydrogen bonding.

Complex carbohydrates: Complex carbohydrate are made up of sugar molecules that are strung together in long, complex chain. Complex carbohydrate are found in food such as beans, peas, whole grains, and vegetables. Both simple and complex carbohydrates are turned to glucose (blood sugar) in the body and are used energy.
  • polysaccharides


It is made up of more than 10 units of monosaccharide. They are long chain polymeric carbohydrates composed of monosaccharides units bond together by glycosidic linkages. The general formula of a polysaccharide is Cx(H2O)y. Polysaccharide may be linear or branched. Linear polysaccharide can form rigid polymers, such a cellulose in trees. In complex carbohydrates, molecules are digested and converted slowly compared to simple carbohydrates. Monosaccharide are not sweet in test. many are insoluble in water. They are hydrophobic in nature. 
Example of polysaccharide:- Example of polysaccharide include Starch, Cellulose, and Glycogen.
Properties of polysaccharide:- They are not sweet in test. Many are insoluble in water. They do not form crystals when desiccated.

Function of Carbohydrates 
One of primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy and food to the body and to the nervous system. 
Most of the carbohydrates in the foods you eat are digested and broken down into glucose before entering the bloodstream.
It also involved in fat metabolism and prevents ketosis.
Building macromolecules.
Carbohydrate storage, in the form of glycogen, provides a short-term energy reserve.

Sources of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrate are an important part of our diet. some example of dietary sources of carbohydrate are:
  • Beans and seeds
  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Candy and sugar
  • Bread, grains, and pasta
  • Snack foods
  • Starchy vegetables

Example of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates example including
  • Glucose
  • Fructose
  • Galactose
  • Ribose
  • Sucrose
  • Lactose
  • Maltose
  • Starch
  • Cellulose
  • Chitin
  • Glycogen

Tags: carbohydrate, carbohydrates food, examples of carbohydrates, types of carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, simple carbohydrates, carbohydrate function

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