In a simplified way, molecules that occur naturally in living organism called biomolecules. Biomolecules have a wide range of size and structures and perform a vast array function. They are organic substances necessary to carry out various life process which are importance for the maintenance of living organism. These include organic molecules that are composed of mainly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus.
Types of biomolecules:- The four major types of biomolecules within the body They are:
- Nucleic acid
Carbohydrates: Carbohydrate are organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio of 1:2:1 and its empirical formula is Cn H2n On or (CH2O)n. Carbohydrate are also know as saccharides comes from Greek word sakkron means sugar. Each gram of carbohydrates provides 4 calories. The breakdown of carbohydrates into glucose, which is the primary energy source for the brain and muscles.
Protein: Most abundant organic molecule present in the body of living organism. protein are polypeptides. They are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more chains of amino acids linked by peptide bond. Each protein is a polymer of amino acids. As there are 20 types f amino acids (e.g.- alanine, cysteine, proline, tryptophan, lysin, etc.) A protein molecules is very large compared with molecules of sugar or salt and consist of many amino acids. Protein is found throughout the body-in muscle, bone, skin, hair, and virtually every other body part of tissue. The structure of protein is classified as primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.
Lipids: Lipids are divers group of hydrophobic molecules include fats, phospholipids, steroids, waxes, etc. They are organic substances insoluble in water but soluble in non polar organic solvents like ether, ethanol, acetone, chloroform, benzene etc. The contain hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen atom which form the framework for the structure an function of loving cell. Lipids play a great role in the cellular structure and are chief source of energy.
Nucleic acid: Nucleic acid are polynucleotide chin formed by the linkage of units called nucleotide. Each nucleotide is made up of a pentose sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group. Nucleic acids are naturally occurring chemical compound that serve as the primary information carrying molecules in cells and make up the genetic material. Nucleic acids are found abundance all living things, where they create, encode, and then store information of every life-form on earth. These are two types of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).